Los camaroneros ecuatorianos preocupados tras la suspensión de dos exportadoras en China

Los camaroneros ecuatorianos preocupados tras la suspensión de dos exportadoras en China

Los empresarios alertan que la suspensión temporal afectará al sector porque estas empacadoras adquieren el crustáceo de productores más pequeños. Los camaroneros ecuatorianos aseguran que la suspensión temporal de las exportadoras tendrá efectos económicos para el sector. Las autoridades chinas emitieron una restricción para las empacadoras Santa Priscila y Omarsa, luego de detectar dos enfermedades en los cargamentos de camarón: mancha blanca (white spot) y cabeza amarilla (yellow head).

Esas empresas concentran el 30% de la exportación de camarón ecuatoriano a ese país. Solo, en 2018 vendieron cerca de USD 1.000 millones del producto. Desde el 5 de agosto, Omarsa tiene prohibición de ingresar al país asiático. La misma medida se aplica para Santa Priscila desde el 23 de agosto. Se desconoce cuándo se levantará la restricción comercial.

“Vamos a tener camarón listo para cosechar en las próximas semanas y que no se podrá vender: Omarsa y Santa Priscila compran la producción de pequeños camaroneros” Edison Yuxcha, de Biogemar Rafael Verduga, gerente general de Texcumar, asegura que “todo el sector camaronero será afectado con esta medida drástica que ha tomado China”. Eso incluye a negocios que tienen nexos con las dos empacadoras suspendidas como los productores de larvas, nauplios, alimento balanceado y los laboratorios. Una medida de presión comercial Tras la restricción, el ministro de Producción, Iván Ontaneda, anunció que una delegación ecuatoriana viajó a China para dialogar con las autoridades de ese país. La Cámara Nacional de Acuacultura (CNA) aseguró que recabaron toda la información sobre los cargamentos de las exportadoras y que ésta fue enviada a la Embajada de China. “Es positivo que el Gobierno haya puesto en su agenda inmediata conversar con China. Después del petróleo, el camarón es el principal producto de exportación”, añade Yuxch. En 2018, según la CNA, las exportaciones de camarón representaron al país USD 3.234 millones. En 2019 se espera superar esta cifra.

Los camaroneros, comenta Yuxcha, sospechan que la suspensión a las exportadoras responde a una medida de presión económica de China, para bajar aún más el precio del camarón. El costo de la libra de camarón ha disminuido desde 2017 y, en julio, se cotizó en USD 2,62, según la CNA. Verduga, de Texcumar, dice también que esta restricción “se presta para muchas especulaciones, sobre todo porque el camarón ecuatoriano ya es resistente a la mancha blanca“. ¿Qué es la mancha blanca?  El profesor Stanislaus Sonnenholzner, PhD en Acuacultura y director del Centro Nacional de Acuacultura e Investigación Marina de la ESPOL, explica que la mancha blanca apareció en las piscinas camaroneras locales en 1999. Se trata de un virus del sudeste asiático que, desde 2004, está controlado en Ecuador. Además, es inocuo para el ser humano, es decir no es dañino.

“Ha habido una evolución del virus y, gracias a la selección genética y natural, tenemos un camarón tolerante a la mancha blanca”. Stanislaus Sonnenholzner Por otra parte, el virus cabeza amarilla, reportado según China en un cargamento ecuatoriano, no se encuentra en el país. “No tenemos un comunicado oficial de China, por eso no podemos decir con exactitud qué han detectado”, agrega el investigador.

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